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Education Papers 21


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Name: Education Papers 21
Editor in Chief: Mark Bray
  1. Tse Shek Kam
  2. Ho Wai Kit
  3. Thomas Lee
  4. Colleen Wong
  5. Chan Wing Sat
  6. Nancy Law
  7. Cecilia Shek
  8. Yu Fong Ying


The Working Group on Language Proficiency was appointed by the Education Commission in October 1993” to identify the most important factors which, in the opinion of teachers, teacher educators, curriculum developers, students and other relevant parties, help or hinder the acquisition of language3 proficiency in both Chinese and English; to suggest, for the consideration of the Commission, possible policy measures to maximise the effect of any helping factors and minimise the effect of any hindering factors, and to suggest topics on which research may be of benefit having regard to relevant recent and current research projects.” With the help of the Education and Manpower Branch and the Education Department, funds were made available to engage consultants for four projects. One of them as a critical review of local academic studies and policy papers on language in education (Chinese focus). The authors were invited to prepare the review as consultants. Team members included Chan Wing Sat (Hong Kong Polytechnic University), Ho Wai Kit (Chinese University of Hong Kong), Colleen Wong, Yu Fong Ying (both at Hong Kong Polytechnic University) and Tse Shek Kam (University of Hong Kong). The review contains much useful material, and the Commission agreed that the authors might make arrangements to publish it.

The critical review deals with both the macro-level concerns such as the role of the Chinese language in Hong Kong and issues of language planning (or the lack of it) as well as micro-level questions of first language learning and classroom teaching. This review offers not only an anatomy of the Chinese Language education scene in Hong Kong, but also insights into why Chinese Language education is as it is and some practical solutions to the problems exposed.

The publication provides a bibliography of various topics of Chinese Language education. The bibliography should provide a quite comprehensive introduction to the literature useful to researchers and educators.

While working as a team, members took on topics most familiar to them in carrying out this review. The division of labour was as follows:

Main issues, translation of Chapter 6, collation of report: F. Y. Yu
Historical development of Chinese Language education: C. Wong; S. K. Tse
Use of Chinese in Hong Kong: S. K. Tse
Standards of Chinese: W. S. Chan
Learning of Chinese by Cantonese speaking pupils, pronunciation of Cantonese: T. Lee
Chinese as the medium of instruction: C. Shek
Curriculum; teaching; teacher education: S. K. Tse
Putonghua: W. K. Ho
Use of Information technology in the teaching and learning of Chinese: N. Law
General conclusion: F. Y. Yu, S. K. Tse (The general conclusion of the Report to the Education Commission has been rewritten for this book.)

This review brings together the views of a group of language educators and specialist who were brought up and educated in Hong Kong. They have wide experience in local primary, secondary, and tertiary institutes and in research. The Hong Kong perspective refers not only to the special type of Chinese Education evolved here but also to the angle from which that education is viewed.

Tse Shek Kam
Department of Curriculum Studies
The University of Hong Kong






Chapter1   Developments in Chinese Language education

1.1 The development of Chinese Language as a subject

1.2 Developments in Chinese Language Education

1.3 Important events affecting Chinese Language education in Hong Kong

1.4 Conclusion and recommendations

Chapter 2   The Chinese Language in Hong Kong

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Varieties of Chinese Language in Hong Kong

2.3 Code-mixing

2.4 Pedagogic implications of varieties

2.5 Uses of Chinese

2.6 Pedagogic implications of uses of Chinese

2.7 Conclusion and recommendations

Chapter 3   The learning of Chinese by Cantonese-speaking pupils

3.1 Introduction

3.2 The linguistic maturity of primary students at entry

3.3 Reading

3.4 Writing

3.5 Vocabulary

3.6 Listening and speaking

3.7 Conclusion and recommendations

Chapter 4   Issues in using Chinese as the Medium of Instruction in Secondary Schools

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Background on educational language policy

4.3 The relationship between medium of instruction and teaching and learning effectiveness

4.4 Problems/Difficulties encountered in implementing CMI

4.5 Measures taken to make CMI a viable medium of instruction

4.6 Conclusion and recommendations

Chapter 5   Standards and Curriculum

5.1 Introduction

5.2 The expected Chinese standards at key learning stages

5.3 the Chinese language curriculum

5.4 Conclusion and recommendations

Chapter 6   Teaching and Teacher Education

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Teaching in Primary schools

6.3 The teaching of Chinese language in Secondary schools

6.4 Teacher education

6.5 Conclusion and recommendations

Chapter 7   Putonghua

7.1 Introduction

7.2 The relationship between Chinese, PTH and Cantonese

7.3 The value of learning PTH

7.4 The development of PTY teaching

7.5 The development of the PTH curriculum

7.6 Training PTH teachers

7.7 Difficulties in teaching PTH in Hong Kong

7.8 Putonghua as MOI

7.9 Putonghua proficiency and Putonghua proficiency tests

7.10 Conclusion and recommendations

Chapter 8   The Use of Information Technology in the Teaching and Learning of Chinese

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Computer Aided Language Learning in Chinese (Chinese CALL) in Hong Kong

8.3 Chinese language Call developments outside Hong Kong

8.4 Information technology in Hong Kong schools—A review of the hardware and software provisions

8.5 Chinese language education, Chinese as a medium of instruction and Chinese CALL

8.6 Conclusion and recommendations




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